Global Shark Research

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Giovos, R.N. Aga Spyridopoulou, N. Doumpas, K. Glaus, P. Kleitou, Z. Kazlari, Katsada, D. Loukovitis, I. Mantzouni, M. Papapetrou, Y.P. Papastamatiou, D.K. Moutopoulos. 2021, Approaching the “real” state of elasmobranch fisheries and trade: A case  study from the Mediterranean Ocean and Coastal Management 211 (2021) 105743

L.F.G. Gutowsky, M. James Rider, R.P. Roemer, A.J. Gallagher, M.R. Heithaus, S. J. Cooke, N. Hammerschlag, 2021, Large sharks exhibit varying behavioral responses to major hurricanes Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 256 (2021) 107373

Bianca S. Rangel, Neil Hammerschlag, James A. Sulikowski, Renata Guimarães Moreira. 2021, Physiological markers suggest energetic and nutritional adjustments  in male sharks linked to reproduction Springer Oecologia 30 July 2021

Felipe Galván-Magaña, Jose Leonardo Castillo-Geniz, Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla, James Ketchum, A. Peter Klimley, Sergio Ramírez-Amaro, Yassir Eden Torres-Rojas, Javier Tovar-Ávila 2019 Shark ecology, the role of the apex predator and current conservation status. Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 83 2019

Mondo, K., Hammerschlag, N., Basile, M., Pablo, J., Banack, S.A. and Mash, D.C., 2012. Cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in shark fins. Marine drugs10(2), pp.509-520.

Lee, P.F. and Shao, K.T., 2009. Two new records of Lamniform shark from the waters adjacent to TaiwanJournal of Fishery Society of Taiwan,  36(4), pp.303-311.

Ferretti, F., Myers, R.A., Serena, F. and Lotze, H.K., 2008. Shark Declines in the Mediterranean Sea:  Loss of large predatory sharks from the Mediterranean Sea. Conservation Biology22(4), pp.952-964.   Pew – Lenfest Ocean Program

Hareide, N.R., Carlson, J., Clarke, M., Clarke, S., Ellis, J., Fordham, S., Fowler, S., Pinho, M., Raymakers, C., Serena, F. and Seret, B., 2007. Strengthening European fisheries management: Options for enforcing the shark finning ban.  Conclusions of an expert workshop on European shark fisheries, trade and markets.  European Shark Fisheries: a preliminary investigation into fisheries, conversion factors, trade products, markets and management measures. Pew – Lenfest Ocean Program;  European Elasmobranch Association

Michael Darmanin & Mark Dimech 2007 Identifying Maltese fishing grounds. The Malta Centre for Fisheries Sciences

Myers, R.A., Baum, J.K., Shepherd, T.D., Powers, S.P. and Peterson, C.H., 2007. Cascading effects of the loss of apex predatory sharks from a coastal ocean. Science, 315(5820), pp.1846-1850.

Martin, R.A., 2007. A review of shark agonistic displays: comparison of display features and implications for shark–human interactions. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 40(1), pp.3-34.

Clarke, S.C., McAllister, M.K., Milner‐Gulland, E.J., Kirkwood, G.P., Michielsens, C.G., Agnew, D.J., Pikitch, E.K., Nakano, H. and Shivji, M.S., 2006. Global estimates of shark catches using trade records from commercial markets. Ecology letters, 9(10), pp.1115-1126.

Gulyugin, S.Y., Litvinov, F.F. and Sirota, A.M., 2006. The distribution and relative abundance of elasmobranch species along North-Western African shelf and slope (from Gibraltar to 16 N) as compared to retrospective data (70s-80s) and environment. CM 2006/D, 3.

Curmi, A., 2005. Taking a bite out of fiction-Media effects and social fears. A case study on “Jaws”.   Faculty of Education, Psychology Department, University of Malta

Bascompte, J., Melián, C.J. and Sala, E., 2005. Interaction strength combinations and the overfishing of a marine food web. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(15), pp.5443-5447.

Reyes, L.M. and García-Borboroglu, P., 2004. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) predation on sharks in Patagonia, Argentina: a first report. Aquatic Mammals, 30(3), pp.376-379.

Baum, J.K. and Myers, R.A., 2004. Shifting baselines and the decline of pelagic sharks in the Gulf of Mexico. Ecology Letters, 7(2), pp.135-145.

Schembri, T., Schembri, P.J. and Fergusson, I.K., 2003. Revision of the records of shark and ray species from the Maltese Islands (Chordata: Chondrichthyes).  The Central Mediterranean Naturalist 4(1): 71 – 104 Malta: December

Dept. of Local Govt. 2003 OC:L2 Shark Hazard Report Perth, Western Australia. 2003

Shimadaa, K. 2002. Teeth of embryos in lamniform sharks (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii) Env. Bio. of Fishes 63: 309–319, 2002. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Gardner, M.G. and Ward, R.D., 2002. Taxonomic affinities within Australian and New Zealand Mustelus sharks (Chondrichthyes: Triakidae) inferred from allozymes, mitochondrial DNA and precaudal vertebrae counts. Copeia2002(2), pp.356-363.

Kitchell, J.F., Essington, T.E., Boggs, C.H., Schindler, D.E. and Walters, C.J., 2002. The role of sharks and longline fisheries in a pelagic ecosystem of the central Pacific. Ecosystems5(2), pp.202-216.

Cunningham-Day, R. 2002 Sharks In Danger Biologist 2002

Brown, B.R., Hutchison, J.C., Hughes, M.E., Kellogg, D.R. and Murray, R.W., 2002. Electrical characterization of gel collected from shark electrosensors. Physical Review E65(6), p.061903.

Castro, J.I., 2002. On the origins of the Spanish word ‘tiburón’, and the English word ‘shark’.  Environmental Biology of Fishes65(3), pp.249-253.

Mollet, H.F., Testi, A.D., Compagno, L.J. and Francis, M.P., 2002. Re-identification of a lamnid shark embryo. Fishery Bulletin100(4), pp.865-875.

Knoff, M., São Clemente, S.C.D., Pinto, R.M. and Gomes, D.C., 2001. Nematodes of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz96(1), pp.81-87.

Bekoff, M., 2001. Social play behaviour. Cooperation, fairness, trust, and the evolution of morality. Journal of Consciousness Studies8(2), pp.81-90.

Caldicott, D.G., Mahajani, R. and Kuhn, M., 2001. The anatomy of a shark attack: a case report and review of the literature. Injury32(6), pp.445-453.

Hoelzel, A.R., 2001. Shark fishing in fin soup. Conservation Genetics2(1), pp.69-72.

Watson, R.R. and Dickson, K.A., 2001. Enzyme activities support the use of liver lipid–derived ketone bodies as aerobic fuels in muscle tissues of active sharks. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology74(2), pp.273-282.

Olson, P.D. and Caira, J.N., 2001. Two new species of Litobothrium Dailey, 1969 (Cestoda: Litobothriidea) from thresher sharks in the Gulf of California, Mexico, with redescriptions of two species in the genus. Systematic Parasitology48(3), pp.159-177.

Kalmijn, A.J., 2000. Detection and processing of electromagnetic and near–field acoustic signals in elasmobranch fishes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences355(1401), pp.1135-1141.

Lucas, Z. and Stobo, W.T., 2000. Shark‐inflicted mortality on a population of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) at Sable Island, Nova Scotia. Journal of Zoology252(3), pp.405-414.

Collins, M.A., Yau, C., Nolan, C.P., Bagley, P.M. and Priede, I.G., 1999. Behavioural observations on the scavenging fauna of the Patagonian slope. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom79(6), pp.963-970.

McKendry, J.E., Bernier, N.J., Takei, Y., Duff, D.W., Olson, K.R. and Perry, S.F., 1999. Natriuretic peptides and the control of catecholamine release in two freshwater teleost and a marine elasmobranch fish. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry20(1), pp.61-77.

Carlson, J.K. and Brusher, J.H., 1999. An index of abundance for coastal species of juvenile sharks from the northeast Gulf of Mexico. Marine Fisheries Review61(3), pp.37-45.

Stevens, J.E., 1994. The delicate constitution of sharks. Bioscience44(10), pp.661-664.

Dayton, L., 1991. Save the sharks. New Scientist, 130(1773), pp.34- 38.

Michael K. Stoskopf, Bradley Smith, Gerritt Klay, 1984. Clinical Note: Blood sampling of captive sharks J Zoo an Med 15, 116 – 117

Barry, M.A. and Boord, R.L., 1984. The spiracular organ of sharks and skates: anatomical evidence indicating a mechanoreceptive role. Science, 226(4677), pp.990-992.

Stevens, J.D., 1984. Life-history and ecology of sharks at Aldabra Atoll, Indian Ocean. Proceedings of the Royal society of London. Series B. Biological sciences, 222(1226), pp.79-106.

Katsuki, Y. and Hashimoto, T., 1969. Shark pit organs: enhancement of mechanosensitivity by potassium ions. Science, 166(3910), pp.1287-1289.

Oguri, M., 1964. Rectal glands of marine and fresh-water sharks: comparative histology. Science, 144(3622), pp.1151-1152.

Schultz, L.P., Gilbert, P.W. and Springer, S., 1961. Shark attacks. Science, 134(3472), pp.87-88.

Gilbert, P.W., Schultz, L.P. and Springer, S., 1960. Shark attacks during 1959. Science, 132(3423), pp.323-326.

Hogben, C.A.M., 1959. Electrophysiology of the elasmobranch stomach. Science, 129(3357), pp.1224-1225.

Gilbert, P.W. and Wood, F.G., 1957. Method of anesthetizing large sharks and rays safely and rapidly. Science, 126(3266), pp.212-213.

Hunt, R.S., 1951. The sharks of Ahwaz. BMJ Military Health, 97(2), pp.79-82.

Gudger, E.W., 1950. A Boy Attacked by a Shark, July 25, 1936 in Buzzard’s Bay, Massachusetts with Notes on Attacks by Another Shark Along the New Jersey Coast in 1916. The American Midland Naturalist, 44(3), pp.714-719.

Burton, E.M., 1935. Shark attacks along the South Carolina coast. The Scientific Monthly, 40(3), pp.279-283.

Parker, G.H., 1933. The color changes of elasmobranch fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 19(12), pp.1038-1039.

Gudger, E.W. and Hoffmann, W.H., 1931. A shark encircled with a rubber automobile tire. Scientific Monthly, 46, pp.281-285.

Scott, GG, 1916. The evolutionary significance of the osmotic pressure of the blood. The American Naturalist , 50 (599), pp.641-663.

Clark, A.H., 1915. Shark intoxication. Science41(1065), pp.795-797.

Wilder, B.G., 1880. Do Sharks Swallow Their Young for Protection?. Science, (20), pp.236-236.

Home, E., 1832, December. On the mode of breeding of the ovo-viviparous shark, and on the aëration of the fætal blood in different classes of animals. In Abstracts of the Papers Printed in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (No. 1, pp. 374-376). London: The Royal Society.


Rachel Robbins, Andrew Fox, 2012 Further evidence of pigmentation change in white sharks,  Carcharodon carcharias Marine and Freshwater Research, 2012, 63, 1215–1217

Anderson, S.D., Chapple, T.K., Jorgensen, S.J., Klimley, A.P. and Block, B.A., 2011. Long-term individual identification and site fidelity of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, off California using dorsal fins. Marine Biology158(6), pp.1233-1237.

Robbins, R.L., 2007. Environmental variables affecting the sexual segregation of great white sharks Carcharodon carcharias at the Neptune Islands South Australia. Journal of fish Biology70(5), pp.1350-1364.

Nyberg, K.G., Ciampaglio, C.N. and Wray, G.A., 2006. Tracing the ancestry of the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, using morphometric analyses of fossil teeth. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology26(4), pp.806-814.

Bonfil, R., Meÿer, M., Scholl, M.C., Johnson, R., O’Brien, S., Oosthuizen, H., Swanson, S., Kotze, D. and Paterson, M., 2005. Transoceanic migration, spatial dynamics, and population linkages of white sharks. Science310(5745), pp.100-103.

Martin, R.A., Hammerschlag, N., Collier, R.S. and Fallows, C., 2005. Predatory behaviour of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) at Seal Island, South Africa. JMBA-Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom85(5), pp.1121

Gabriotti, Vittorio, and Alessandro De Maddalena. “Observations of an approach behavior to a possible prey performed by some great white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758), at the Neptune Islands, South Australia.” Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia 55 (2004): 151-157.

Galaz, T. and De Maddalena, A., 2004. On a Great White Shark, Carcharodon carcharias(Linnaeus, 1758), trapped in a tuna cage off Libya, Mediterranean Sea. In Annales. Anali za istrske in mediteranske studije.(Series historia naturalis) (Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 159-164).

Morey, G., Martínez, M., Massutí, E. and Moranta, J., 2003. The occurrence of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean Sea). Environmental Biology of Fishes68(4), pp.425-432.

Boustany, A.M., Davis, S.F., Pyle, P., Anderson, S.D., Le Boeuf, B.J. and Block, B.A., 2002. Expanded niche for white sharks. Nature415(6867), pp.35-36.

Dion, S. 2002 Cage Diving & Great White Shark Conditioning Department of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch (2002).

Plan, R., 2002. White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) Recovery Plan.  Environment Australia Commonwealth of Australia.

De Maddalena, A., Zuffa, M., Lipej, L. and Celona, A., 2001. An analysis of the photographic evidences of the largest Great White sharks, Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758), captured in the Mediterranean Sea with considerations about the maximum size of the species. In Annales, Series historia naturalis (Vol. 25, pp. 193-206).

Fergusson, I.K., Compagno, L.J. and Marks, M.A., 2000. Predation by white sharks Carcharodon carcharias (Chondrichthyes: Lamnidae) upon chelonians, with new records from the Mediterranean Sea and a first record of the ocean sunfish Mola mola (Osteichthyes: Molidae) as stomach contents. Environmental Biology of Fishes58(4), pp.447-453.

De Maddalena, A., 2000. Historical and contemporary presence of the great white shark Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758), in the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea. In Annales, Series historia naturalis (Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 3-18).

Goldman, K.J. and Anderson, S.D., 1999. Space utilization and swimming depth of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, at the South Farallon Islands, central California. Environmental Biology of Fishes56(4), pp.351-364.

Proponent, B., 1998. Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Fisheries.   (Inclusion of Carcharodon carcharias (Great White Shark) in Appendix III in accordance with Article II.3.and in accordance with the provisions of Article V.   Environment Australia  CITES 2001)

Compagno, L.J., Marks, M.A. and Fergusson, I.K., 1997. Threatened fishes of the world: Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus, 1758)(Lamnidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes50(1), p.61.

Cliff, G., Dudley, S.F.J. and Davis, B., 1989. Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off Natal, South Africa. 2. The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus). South African Journal of Marine Science8(1), pp.131-144.

Tricas, T.C., 1985. Feeding ethology of the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias. Memoirs of the Southern California Academy of Sciences9, pp.81-91.

Seigel , Jeffrey A. and Swift, Camm C.,   1985. Biology of the White Shark Carcharodon carcharias. – A Symposium  Memoirs. Southern California Academy of Sciences Vol.9


Chi-Ju Yu, Shoou-Jeng Joung, Hua-Hsun Hsu, Chia-Yen Lin, Tzu-Chi Hsieh, Kwang-Ming Liu and Atsuko Yamaguchi 2021 Spatial–Temporal Distribution of Megamouth  Shark, Megachasma pelagios, Inferred from over 250 Individuals Recorded in the Three Oceans Animals 2021, 11, 2947.

Nicolas Acuña-Perales, Francisco Córdova-Zavaleta,  Joanna Alfaro-Shigueto, and Jeffrey C. Mangel, 2021. First records of the megamouth shark Megachasma pelagios (Taylor, Compagno & Struhsaker, 1983) as bycatch in Peruvian small-scale net fisheries. Acuña-Perales et al. Marine Biodiversity Records (2021) 14:1

Yun-Ru Ju, Chih-Feng Chen, Chiu-Wen Chen […] Cheng-Di Dong 2021 Profile and consumption risk assessment of trace elements in megamouth sharks (Megachasma pelagios) captured from the Pacific Ocean to the east of Taiwan  Environmental Pollution

Laurent Duchatelet, Victoria Moris, Taketeru Tomita[…]Jérôme Mallefet  2020 The megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, is not a luminous species  PLoS ONE

Shaleyla Kelez, Rossana Maguiño Napuri, Alejandra Mendoza Pfennig, Oswaldo Caldas Martinez, Antonio Torres Carrasco, 2020. First reports of Megamouth Shark, Megachasma pelagios Taylor, Compagno & Struhsaker, 1983 (Lamniformes, Megachasmidae), in Peru.  Check List 16 (5): 1361–1367

Yuuki Y. Watanabe Yannis P. Papastamatiou Distribution, body size and biology of the megamouth shark Megachasma pelagios 2019, doi: 10.1111/jfb.14007

Shang-Yin Vanson Liu, Shoou Jeng Joung, Chi-Ju Yu […] Kwang-Ming Liu  2018  Genetic diversity and connectivity of the megamouth shark ( Megachasma pelagios )  PeerJ

Jimmy Martínez-Ortiz, Darwin Mendoza-Intriago, Walter Tigrero-Gonzalez, Gabriela Flores-Rivera, Rubén López-Párraga  2017  New records of megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios off Ecuador, Eastern Pacific Ocean  Ciencia Pesquera (2017) 25(2): 27-30

Rodriguez-Ferrer, G., Wetherbee, B.M., Schärer, M., Lilyestrom, C., Zegarra, J.P. and Shivji, M., 2017. First record of the megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios,(family Megachasmidae) in the tropical western North Atlantic Ocean. Marine Biodiversity Records10(1), pp.1-4.

Kazuhiro Nakaya 2015 Biology of the Megamouth Shark, Megachasma pelagios (Lamniformes: Megachasmidae) Corpus ID: 208369161

Daniel Fernando, Nishan Perera, David A. Ebert, 2015, First record of the megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, (Chondrichthyes: Lamniformes: Megachasmidae) from Sri Lanka, northern Indian Ocean Marine Biodiversity Records, page 1 of 3. Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, doi:10.1017/S1755267215000512; Vol. 8; e75; 

Ian Macleod 2015 Conservation of a museum megamouth shark specimen by changing its preservative from aqueous ethanol to aqueous glycerol

Tomita, T., Tanaka, S., Sato, K. and Nakaya, K., 2014. Pectoral fin of the megamouth shark: skeletal and muscular systems, skin histology, and functional morphology. PLoS one9(1), p.e86205.

Chia-Hao Chang, Kwang-Tsao Shao, Yeong-Shin Lin […] Nian-Hong, Jang-Liaw  2013 Complete mitochondrial genome of the megamouth shark Megachasma pelagios (Chondrichthyes, Megachasmidae)  Mitochondrial DNA

Jose Leonardo Castillo-Geniz, AI Ocampo-Torres, Kenshu Shimada […] AC Nicholas  2012  Juvenile megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, caught off the Pacific coast of Mexico, and its significance to chondrichthyan diversity in Mexico Ciencias Marinas

SHOZO SAWAMOTO & RUI MATSUMOTO 2012 Stomach contents of a megamouth shark Megachasma pelagios from the Kuroshio Extension: evidence for feeding on a euphausiid swarm Plankton Benthos Res 7(4): 203–206, 2012

Ryan M Kempster, Shaun P Collin  2011 Electrosensory pore distribution and feeding in the megamouth shark Megachasma pelagios (Lamniformes: Megachasmidae)  Article AQUATIC BIOLOGY Vol. 11: 225–228

Nakaya, R. Matsumoto and K. Suda 2008, Feeding strategy of the megamouth shark Megachasma pelagios (Lamniformes:Megachasmidae) Journal of Fish Biology (2008) 73, 17–34

White, W.T., Fahmi, M.A. and Sumadhiharga, K., 2004. A juvenile megamouth shark Megachasma pelagios (Lamniformes: Megachasmidae) from northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology52(2), pp.603-607.

Malcolm J. Smale, Leonard J. V. Compagno, B.A. Human. 2002, First megamouth shark from the western Indian Ocean and South Africa South African Journal of Science 98 p.350, July/August 

Kazuhiro NAKAYA 2001 White Band on Upper Jaw of Megamouth Shark, Megachasma pelagios, and Its Presumed Function (Lamniformes: Megachasmidae) Bull Fac. Fish. Hokkaido Univ. 52(3), 125-129

Alberto F. Amorim, Carlos A. Arfellia & José I. Castro 2000, Description of a juvenile megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, caught off Brazil Environmental Biology of Fishes 59: 117–123, 

Morrissey, J.F. and Elizaga, E.T., 1999. Capture of megamouth 11 in the Philippines. Philippine Journal of Science, 36, pp.143-147.

K. Yano Yoshitaka, YabumotoS, Tanaka[…]M. Furuta 1999 Capture of a mature female megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, from Mie, Japan. Conference Paper

Hironobu Ito, Masami Yoshimoto, Hiroaki Somiya  1999  External Brain Form and Cranial Nerves of the Megamouth Shark, Megachasma pelagios  Copeia

Yoshitaka Yabumoto 1997 Dermal and mucous denticles of a female megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, from Hakata Bay, Japan.

Yoshitaka YabumotoM. GotoK. YanoTeruya Uyeno  1997 Dentition of a female megamouth, Megachasma pelagios, collected from Hakata Bay, Japan Article Jan 1997 

Takada, K., Hiruda, H., Wakisaka, S., Kudo, S. and Yano, K., 1997. A summary of the freezing, thawing, preservation, and display methodology used on a large megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios. Biology of the Megamouth Shark,(K. Yano, JF Morrissey, Y. Yabumoto, and K. Nakaya, eds.). Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan, pp.11-10.

Nelson, D.R., McKibben, J.N., Strong, W.R., Lowe, C.G., Sisneros, J.A., Schroeder, D.M. and Lavenberg, R.J., 1997. An acoustic tracking of a megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios: a crepuscular vertical migrator. Environmental biology of fishes49(4), pp.389-399.

Andrew P Martin, Gavin Naylor 1997 Independent origins of filter-feeding in megamouth and basking sharks (Order Lamniformes) inferred from phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b gene sequences

Yoshitaka Yabumoto, M. Goto, K. Yano, Teruya Uyeno, 1997. Dentition of a female megamouth, Megachasma pelagios, collected from Hakata Bay, Japan. Tokai University Press, Tokyo Japan

ISHIDA, H. & MIYAMOTO, H. & KAJINO, T. & NAKAYASU, H. & NUKAYA, H. & TSUJI, K.  1996 Study on the Bile Salt from Megamouth Shark. I. The Structures of a New Bile Alcohol, 7-Deoxyscymnol, and Its New Sodium Sulfates.  Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 44 (7): 1289–1292

Eugenie Clark, José Castro  1995 ‘Megamama’ is a virgin: dissection of the first female specimen of Megachasma pelagios  Environmental Biology of Fishes

Tim M. Berra and J. Barry Hutchins 1990 A specimen of megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios (Megachasmidae) from Western Australia. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 1990, 14(4) 651 – 656

L.J.V. Compagno  1990 Relationships of the megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios (Lamniformes: Megachasmidae), with comments on its feeding habits

John G. Maisey 1985 Relationships of the Megamouth Shark, Megachasma  Copeia 1985(1):228

L.R. TaylorL.J.V. CompagnoP.J. Struhsaker  1983 Megamouth – A new species, genus, and family of lamnoid shark (Megachasma pelagios, family Megachasmidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.


Sutanto Hadi, Noviar Andayani, Efin Muttaqin, Benaya M. Simeon, Muhammad Ichsan, Beginer Subhan, Hawis Madduppa, 2020 Genetic connectivity of the scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini across  Indonesia and the Western Indian Ocean PLoS ONE · October 2020

Sorisio, L.S., De Maddalena, A. and Visser, I.N., 2006. Interaction between killer whales (Orcinus orca) and hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna sp.) in Galápagos waters. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals5(1), pp.69-71.  ISSN 1676-7497

Celona, A. and De Maddalena, A., 2005. Occurrence of hammerhead sharks (chondrichthyes: sphyrnidae) in waters off Sicily (central Mediterranean): historical and recent data. In Annales: Series Historia Naturalis (Vol. 15, No. 1, p. 57). Scientific and Research Center of the Republic of Slovenia.

Kajiura, S.M., Forni, J.B. and Summers, A.P., 2003. Maneuvering in juvenile carcharhinid and sphyrnid sharks: the role of the hammerhead shark cephalofoil. Zoology106(1), pp.19-28.

Nelson, P., Kajiura, S. and Losey, G., 2003. Exposure to solar radiation may increase ocular UV-filtering in the juvenile scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrnalewini. Marine Biology142(1), pp.53-56.

Young, F.A., Kajiura, S.M., Visser, G.J., Correia, J.P. and Smith, M.F., 2002. Notes on the long‐term transport of the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini). Zoo Biology: Published in affiliation with the American Zoo and Aquarium Association21(3), pp.243-251.

Kajiura, S.M., 2001. Head morphology and electrosensory pore distribution of carcharhinid and sphyrnid sharks. Environmental Biology of Fishes61(2), pp.125-133.

Hazin, F., Fischer, A. and Broadhurst, M., 2001. Aspects of reproductive biology of the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini, off northeastern Brazil. Environmental Biology of Fishes61(2), pp.151-159.


Yopak, K.E. and Frank, L.R., 2009. Brain size and brain organization of the whale shark, Rhincodon typus, using magnetic resonance imaging. Brain, behavior and evolution74(2), pp.121-142.

. Duffy, C.A.J., 2002. Distribution, seasonality, lengths, and feeding behaviour of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) observed in New Zealand waters. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research,  Vol. 36: 565–570

Eckert, S.A., Dolar, L.L., Kooyman, G.L., Perrin, W. and Rahman, R.A., 2002. Movements of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) in South‐east Asian waters as determined by satellite telemetry. Journal of Zoology257(1), pp.111-115.

Eckert, S.A. and Stewart, B.S., 2001. Telemetry and satellite tracking of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Sea of Cortez, Mexico, and the north Pacific Ocean. In Environmental Biology of Fishes : The behavior and sensory biology of elasmobranch fishes: an anthology in memory of Donald Richard Nelson 60: (pp. 299-308). Springer, Dordrecht.  

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Bryan McNeil, Dayv Lowry, Shawn Larson, Denise Griffing 2016 Feeding Behavior of Subadult Sixgill Sharks (Hexanchus griseus) at a Bait Station PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371 / journal.pone.0156730 May 31, 2016

Noel Vella, Adriana Vella, 2016, Vntrs in the MTDNA Control Region of the Bluntnose Sixgill Shark,  Hexanchus griseus, September 2016 Conference: 41st CIESM Congress At: Kiel, Germany, 12 September – 16 September 2016 Volume: Vol. 41

Noel Vella, Adriana Vella, 2013, Classification of species within the Genus Hexanchus and Heptranchias through MTDNA sequences March 2013 Conference: CIESM Congress 2013 At: Marseille, France Volume: Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Médit., 40, 2013 p 706

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Andrej A. Gajić 2022 New hope for the critically endangered Common Angel shark (Squatina squatina) in the Adriatic Sea Fisheries · February 2022 DOI: 10.2478/cjf-2022-0001

Nehmens MC, Varney RM, Janosik AM and Ebert DA, 2021, An Exploratory Study of Telomere Length in the Deep-Sea Shark, Etmopterus granulosus. Front. Mar. Sci. 8:642872. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2021.642872

Jérôme Mallefet1, Darren W. Stevens and Laurent Duchatelet 2021, Bioluminescence of the Largest  Luminous Vertebrate, the Kitefin Shark, Dalatias licha: First Insights and Comparative Aspects Frontiers in Marine Science February 2021 | Volume 8 | Article 633582

Jérôme Delroisse, Laurent Duchatelet, Patrick Flammang and Jérôme Mallefet 2021, Photophore Distribution and Enzymatic Diversity Within the Photogenic Integument of the Cookie-Cutter Shark Isistius brasiliensis (Chondrichthyes: Dalatiidae) Frontiers in Marine Science April 2021 | Volume 8 | Article 627045

Jessica L. Rudd, Owen M. Exeter, Jackie Hall, Graham Hall, Suzanne M. Henderson, Christopher Kerry, Matthew J. Witt & Lucy A. Hawkes, 2021, High resolution biologging of breaching by the world’s second largest shark species. Scientific Reports | (2021) 11:5236 |

Bianca de Sousa Rangel, Renata Guimarães Moreira, Yuri Vieira Niella, James A. Sulikowski, Neil Hammerschlag, 2021, Metabolic and nutritional condition of juvenile tiger sharks exposed to regional differences in coastal urbanization Science of the Total Environment 780 (2021) 146548

Adriana Vella, Noel Vella and Elizabeth Dent 2013 First Records Of The Little Sleeper Shark, Somniosus Rostratus, In Maltese Fisheries’ Landings. Jan 2013 CIESM 2013

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Caruso, J. and Bor, P.H.F., 2007. Egg capsule morphology of Parascyllium variolatum (Duméril, 1853)(Chondrichthyes; Parascylliidae), with notes on oviposition rate in captivity. Journal of Fish Biology, 70(5), pp.1620-1625.

Ian K. Fergusson, Ken J. Graham, Leonard J. V. Compagno 2007 Distribution, abundance and biology of the smalltooth sandtiger shark Odontaspis ferox (Risso, 1810) (Lamniformes: Odontaspididae) Environ Biol Fish (2008) 81:207–228

Litvinov, F.F., 2006. On the role of dense aggregations of males and juveniles in the functional structure of the range of the blue shark Prionace glauca. Journal of Ichthyology, 46(8), pp.613-624.

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Hammerschlag, N. and Fallows, C., 2005. Galapagos sharks (Carcharhinus galapagensis) at the Bassas da India atoll: First record from the Mozambique Channel and possible significance as a nursery area. South African Journal of Science, 101(7-8), pp.375-377.

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Martin, R.A., 2004. Natural mortality of puffadder shysharks due to Cape fur seals and black‐backed kelp gulls at Seal Island, South Africa. Journal of fish biology, 64(3), pp.711-716.McFarlane, G.A. and King, J.R., 2003. Migration patterns of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in the North Pacific Ocean. Fishery Bulletin, 101(2), pp.358-367.

Carrier, J.C., Murru, F.L., Walsh, M.T. and Pratt Jr, H.L., 2003. Assessing reproductive potential and gestation in nurse sharks (Ginglymostoma cirratum) using ultrasonography and endoscopy: an example of bridging the gap between field research and captive studies. Zoo Biology: Published in affiliation with the American Zoo and Aquarium Association, 22(2), pp.179-187.

Donley, J.M. and Shadwick, R.E., 2003. Steady swimming muscle dynamics in the leopard shark Triakis semifasciata. Journal of Experimental Biology, 206(7), pp.1117-1126.

Carlson, J.K., Cortés, E. and Bethea, D.M., 2003. Life history and population dynamics of the finetooth shark (Carcharhinus isodon) in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Fishery Bulletin, 101(2), pp.281-292.

Heithaus, M., Dill, L., Marshall, G. and Buhleier, B., 2002. Habitat use and foraging behavior of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in a seagrass ecosystem. Marine Biology, 140(2), pp.237-248.

Lucifora, L.O., Menni, R.C. and Escalante, A.H., 2002. Reproductive ecology and abundance of the sand tiger shark, Carcharias taurus, from the southwestern Atlantic. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59(3), pp.553-561.

Fergusson, I.K., Vacchi, M. and Serena, F., 2002, November. Note on the declining status of the sandtiger shark Carcharias taurus in the Mediterranean Sea. In Fourth Meeting of the European Elasmobranch Association, Livorno, Italy (pp. 27-30). ICRAM, ARPAT & SFI.  2002  73-76

Saville, K.J., Lindley, A.M., Maries, E.G., Carrier, J.C. and Pratt, H.L., 2002. Multiple paternity in the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 63(3), pp.347-351.

Joyce, W.N., Campana, S.E., Natanson, L.J., Kohler, N.E., Pratt Jr, H.L. and Jensen, C.F., 2002. Analysis of stomach contents of the porbeagle shark (Lamna nasus Bonnaterre) in the northwest Atlantic. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59(6), pp.1263-1269.

Iglésias, S.P., Du Buit, M.H. and Nakaya, K., 2002. Egg capsules of deep-sea catsharks from eastern North Atlantic, with first descriptions of the capsule of Galeus murinus and Apristurus aphyodes (Chondrichthyes: Scyliorhinidae). Cybium, 26(1), pp.59-63.

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Sundström, L.F. and Gruber, S.H., 2002. Effects of capture and transmitter attachments on the swimming speed of large juvenile lemon sharks in the wildJournal of Fish Biology, 61(3), pp.834-838.

Valeiras, J., López, A. and García, M., 2001. Geographical, seasonal occurrence and incidental fishing captures of basking shark Cetorhinus maximus (Chondricthyes: Cetorhinidae). Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 81(1), p.183.

Ferry-Graham, L.A. and Gibb, A.C., 2001. Comparison of fasting and postfeeding metabolic rates in a sedentary shark, Cephaloscyllium ventriosum. Copeia, 2001(4), pp.1108-1113.

Holland, K.N., Bush, A., Meyer, C.G., Kajiura, S., Wetherbee, B.M. and Lowe, C.G., 2001. Five tags applied to a single species in a single location: the tiger shark experience. In Electronic Tagging and Tracking in Marine Fisheries (pp. 237-247). Springer, Dordrecht.

Guallart, J. and Vicent, J.J., 2001. Changes in composition during embryo development of the gulper shark, Centrophorus granulosus (Elasmobranchii, Centrophoridae): an assessment of maternal-embryonic nutritional relationships. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 61(2), pp.135-150.

Mollet, H.F., Cliff, G., Pratt Jr, H.L. and Stevens, J., 2000. Reproductive biology of the female shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810, with comments on the embryonic development of lamnoids. Fishery Bulletin, (2). 98:299–318

Yamaguchi, A., Taniuchi, T. and Shimizu, M., 2000. Geographic variations in reproductive parameters of the starspotted dogfish, Mustelus manazo, from five localities in Japan and in Taiwan. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 57(2), pp.221-233.

Heupel, M.R., Whittier, J.M. and Bennett, M.B., 1999. Plasma steroid hormone profiles and reproductive biology of the epaulette shark, Hemiscyllium ocellatum. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 284(5), pp.586-594.

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KENSHU SHIMADA and DAVID J. WARD 2016 The oldest fossil record of the megamouth shark from the late Eocene of Denmark, and comments on the enigmatic megachasmid origin Article Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 61 (x): xxx-xxx Dec 2016

Kenshu Shimada, Evgeny V. Popov, Mikael Siversson, Bruce J. Welton & Douglas J. Long 2015 A new clade of putative plankton-feeding sharks from the Upper Cretaceous of Russia and the United States  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology

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Cuny, G., Hunt, A., Mazin, J.M. and Rauscher, R., 2000. Teeth of enigmatic neoselachian sharks and an ornithischian dinosaur from the uppermost Triassic of Lons-le-Saunier (Jura, France). Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 74(1-2), pp.171-185.

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ICCAT (Madrid, Spain, 30 September to 4 October 2019)

National laws, multi-lateral agreements, regional and global regulations on shark protection and shark finning
December 2011

Shark Alliance, 2011. European Shark Week opens With Call to “Make The Push” to Protect Europe’s Sharks

Van Osch, S., 2011. Save Our Sharks: Using International Fisheries Law Within Regional Fisheries Management Organizations to Improve Shark Conservation. The Michigan Journal of International Law, 33, p.383.

Laivera, N,  2010, What Lies Beneath.  Sunday Circle Magazine of Times of Malta, August, pg. 36, 37, 38

2008,  Shark Declines in the Mediterranean SeaLENFEST OCEAN PROGRAM

A. Buttigieg & A. Schwartz, 2008 “The Shark’s World – Hammerheads”.  Issue 2, Dec. 2008.

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The Global Shark Crisis,  WildAid Leaflet

Montgomery , Sy,   Tracking Ocean Migrators

Paul, Melanie,  Bandit’s Story: The Real-life Rescue of a Great White Shark

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